Chapter 4: Planning of Forest Roads and Harvesting System

Road construction during and after timber harvesting is the main contributor impacts to the environment.  The planning of roads and harvesting systems are to ensure that:

  • Roads are constructed in an orderly manner and in accordance with the road standard.
  • The density of roads and skid trails are sufficiently constructed to minimize impacts on the environment.
  • Optimal access to the forest areas for timber harvesting and to suit the harvesting system.
  • Safety during the timber harvesting, timber trucking and other general road uses are considered.


  • The construction and maintenance of roads, drainage structures and bridges in accordance with the Guidelines for Forest Road Layout.
  • Planning procedure to follow strictly the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) and Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) for long-term economic benefit of the FMU.

Harvesting System

Harvesting shall be carried out in a rational and systematic manner through RILP. Directional felling shall be employed whenever possible.  Logging methods causing excessive damage to the forest and ground cover will, therefore, not be permitted.  In this FMU ground-based harvesting systems shall be employed by using crawler tractors and environmentally more friendly system, the swing yarder or modified excavators.  However, the use of crawler tractors will be phased out and will be used for skidding only and mainly for road construction.

Felling will be permitted only in blocks in which the authority has been given by FDS.  As harvesting proceeds, FDS will give authority for felling in other blocks to be worked equivalent to those declared harvested by the FMU holder.  The efficiency of logging will be inspected using the Instructions for the Inspection of Hill Logging Areas or as written in the standard operating procedure (SOP).