Summary of Forest Management Plan (FMP) for Pila – Mujong Forest Management Unit (FMU)
The FMP for Pila – Mujong FMU, Forest Timber Licence (FTL) No. T/0518, is summarized as follows:
1. Background of Management Area
Pila – Mujong FMU, located within Bukit Raya Forest Felling Plan, has a total area of 100,978 ha, consisting of partial Batang Baleh – Batang Rajang Stateland Forest which falls inside the watershed of Sg. Mujong – Batang Baleh and Sg. Pila – Batang Rajang area. The FMU area is divided into 25 coupes. The boundary of the FMP is positioned in between latitudes N02o1’00” to N02o21’00” and longitudes from E113o4’00” to E113o31’00” as per locality map of Pila – Mujong FMU shown in Figure 1.
The Pila – Mujong FMU was previously under FTL No. T/0250 and subsequently, issued to Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation (STIDC) on 1st October, 1975 for a duration of 10 years under FTL No. T/0518. The licence was renewed and would expire on 30th September, 2025.
2. Physical Features and Boundaries
The altitudes of Pila – Mujong is ranging from 250 m in the Northern part at the lower hill areas to 1,758 m at highest spot at the mid-centre tip above sea level next to FTL No. T/3064, Sut Sawmill (3064) Sdn. Bhd..
Pila – Mujong FMU, mainly covers by Terrain Classes I, II and III with only few areas having steep dissected terrain with slope greater than 35o or Terrain Class IV, considered as too steep for conventional bulldozers based logging. This FMU experiences tropical climate affected by the monsoon seasons, which is generally hot, wet and humid throughout the year.
Figure 1: The locality map of Pila – Mujong FMU
3. Management Objectives
Our management objectives are:
- optimum utilization of the forest resources;
- regulation of the harvest on a sustained yield basis with strict adherence to RIL practice;
- regeneration of the forest and improvement of the stocking of commercial species by suitable silvicultural methods;
- Monitoring the forest growth through forest mensuration and stand assessment besides ensuring the harvested volume of timber is not in excess of pre-assessment of the residual stand;
- To adopt multiple-uses of forest to serve social, economic and environmental purposes on a sustainable basis within estimated budget to achieve economic viability;
- Enhancing carbon storage in the forest ecosystem through minimal disturbance of forest;
- Minimum disturbance or protection on soil and water and least environmental impacts to protect ecological diversity and resources;
- Long term conservation and sustainable use of wildlife and HCVF areas in compliance with DF Circular 6/99;
- To enhance local communal relationship and stress on the social benefits of forest to local communities, (if any); and
- To respect worker’s right and ensure safe work place.
4. Forest Zoning
The main forest zoning of Pila – Mujong FMU is summarized in Table 1.
- Production Area – Mixed Hill Dipterocarp Forests for the production of timber.
- Conservation Area – undisturbed and partially disturbed which would serve as reference as continuous in research studies, refuge and breeding sites, as well as timber tree seed production and conservation of genetic diversity.
- Shifting Agriculture Area (areas affected by the local communities used)
Table 1: Types of Zones and Sizes in Hectares
|Area||Type of Zones||Area
|Shifting Agriculture (SA)||16,197||16.04|
|Total Licensed Area||100,978||100|
5. Forest Resources and Forest Research:
- More than 15 Permanent Sample Plots (PSP) were established within the FMU area. The objective for the establishment of PSP is to determine the Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) to sustainably manage this FMU area.
- The calculation of AAC was based on the PSPs result for growth simulation.
- A repeated simulation runs have been carried out using different harvesting scenarios and their results were analyzed in terms of sustainability with estimated harvested volume to be achieved.
- It has a 25-year cutting cycle with an extractable of 10 – 31 trees/ha and an average harvestable gross volume of 57.18 m3/ha.
- This calculation serves as a temporary indication of sustainable harvestable volume.
- Identification and monitoring of Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) Species and their habitats and dynamism in sustainably well managed forest area.
- Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFPs) likes palm, bamboo, rattan, wild fruits and edible wild vegetable are present in the FMU.
- Based on 15 PSP, it has a total of 96 trees for DBH 30.0 cm and above with an estimated volume of 117.1333 m3/ha, amongst which 77 trees are from DBH 30.0 – 49.9 cm with an average gross volume of 68.7053 m3/ha and another 19 trees for DBH 50.0 cm and above with an estimated volume of 48.4686 m3/ha respectively.
- FMU has 11 ERT species of fauna with 21 family species consisting of 35 mammals, 2 reptiles and 1 insect.
- Rate of Annual Harvest:
- The average harvestable yield within the PSP research is 57.18 m3/ha, an average figure derived from both high density and low density productive areas showing fair representation of PSPs.
- The preliminary growth calculation of Mean Annual Increment (MAI) is 0.4 cm/year and 1.60 m3/ha/year. The basal area is calculated as 26.27 m2/ha.
- Average Allowable Cutting Area (ACA) is 3,341 ha.
- AAC is 106,931.20 m3 or MPL is 8,910.93 m3 of production limit for the initial planning of this FMP.
6. Management Plan Prescriptions
- The management abides all laws, ordinances and rules which regulate the implementation of the Forest Policy of Sarawak and to comply with the requirements of Malaysia Criteria and Indicators for Forest Management Certification (Natural Forest) [(MC&I (Natural Forest)) under the Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS).
- The management follows cutting rules of tree felling approved by Forest Department Sarawak (FDS).
- The FMU adopt the Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) system using modified excavators and 100% tagging of trees harvested.
- This FMU is divided into 25 coupes based on 25-year cutting cycle.
- The FMP would be revised every 5 years to include and incorporate any new and practical recommendation from monitoring in order to keep the management plan on track to have an up-to-date resource data.
7. Planning of Forest Roads and Harvesting Systems
- The construction and maintenance of roads, drainage structures and bridges in accordance with the Guidelines for Forest Road Layout.
- Planning procedure to follow strictly the approved General Harvesting Plan (GP) and Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) for long-term economic benefit of the FMU owner.
- Demarcation of all boundaries such as licence, FMU, coupe year, block, area for protection and conservation would be carried out before pre- felling inspection.
- Tree tagging of 100% enumeration for harvestable trees, protected trees, potential crop trees, mother Trees, seed fruit trees and nesting trees respectively would be done.
- The RIL practice would involve pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting planning and related activities.
- The monitoring and control of pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting within the FMU is executed by Forestry Agencies.
8. Harvesting Operation
- Training of forest workers in accordance with the Section 51 of the Forest Ordinance, 2015.
- Strictly follow the RIL Guidelines in timber operation through selective cutting by using modified excavator with winch to minimize the impact to residual stand, soil and water disturbance. This involves pre-harvesting, harvesting and post harvesting and related activities.
- Adopt directional felling technique to minimize damages to the forest.
- Post-harvest activities include the installation of cross drains and sedimentation or silt traps and 10% enumeration technique in sampling from 2 – 5% of post-logging assessment that including logging damage assessment and enumeration for the residue stands to established the sivilculture or mosaic planting methods by enrichment planting where necessary.
- All harvested logs are traceable and verifiable through Chain of Custody (COC).
9. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
- The EIA of this FMU was approved by the Controller of Natural Resources and Environment Board (NREB) Sarawak on 23rd September, 2013.
- To follow terms and conditions of approval in accordance with the provisions of Natural Resources and Environment Ordinance 1993 and Natural Resources & Environment (Prescribed Activities) Order, 1994.
- Quarterly Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) will be carried out in order to monitor the status of General Terms and Conditions and mitigations as required in the approved EIA.
- The environmental baseline of water quality of the FMU is within the Compliance Limits (Class IIB) of the National water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQSM).
- The monitoring and control was based on guidelines of pre-felling and post harvesting activities, EMR and SIA respectively.
10. Silviculture, Forest Rehabilitation and Reforestation
- Enrichment planting of fast growing indigenous species Kelampayan (Anthocephalus chinensis) and other suitable local species in order to improve the timber stocking of this FMU.
- Enrichment planting with Mosaic planting method would be conducted in those degraded areas.
- Climbers cutting would be done in harvested area and slashing the undergrowth in the planted area.
11. Wildlife Management
- Control of hunting and trespassing by strict adherence of DF 6/99 circular on wildlife conservator and improvement of gate control/guard house.
- To instill awareness about wildlife management to forest workers.
- Through scheduled periodic patrolling of the FMU area.
- Appointment of Honorary Wildlife Officer to assist in wildlife conservation and monitoring purposes.
12. Identification and Management of Protected and Conservation Areas
- Management of Protected and Conservation Areas
|1.||Non-Commercial or Poorly Stocked Area||Low stocking area will be excluded from FMU harvesting area.|
|2.||Permanent Waterway||Riparian buffer zone as approved in EIA by NREB will be identified and demarcated with recommended width on the ground.|
|3.||Steep Slope||Steep terrain IV or slope greater than 35° as indicated in Sarawak Forestry Map B will be mapped and excluded from harvesting within Pila – Mujong FMU.|
|4.||Water Catchments||To identify on map and demarcated on ground for protection.|
|5.||Boundary and Totally Protected Area||Buffer zone of 0.1 km width will be demarcated on ground for protection.|
|6.||Critical Resource and Sites||Buffer zone of width 100 m surrounding identified critical resources and sites such as saltlick to be mapped and demarcated on ground.|
|7.||Research Plot and Permanent Sample Plot (PSP)||PSP established by FMU will be protected with at least 20 m buffer surrounding the plot perimeter boundary.|
|8.||Community Use Area and Cultural or Religious Sites (if any)||Free, prior, informed and consent (FPIC) will be applied to community use area, cultural site and religious site and demarcated on ground for protection purposes.|
|9.||Potential Tourism Area||Potential ecotourism and recreational sites would be identified and demarcated on ground (if any).|
|10.||High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF)||To identify as protected area, to mark on map and demarcated on ground|
13. High Conservation Value(s)
- There are 4 out of 6 HCVs as listed in the HCVF Malaysia Toolkit presence in the FMU.
- There are 35 fauna and 36 floras threatened and endangered species found in the studied sites (HCV 1.2).
- There are 18 endemic flora and 3 endemic fauna species (HCV 1.3).
- Areas for critical temporal use ware identified (HCV 1.4).
- The FMU is located within the Pila – Mujong Working Plan area and it is a significant large landscape of forest to home different species of wildlife almost in habitat in natural distribution. In a regional perspective, the main riverine reserves is served as wildlife reservoirs and corridors with adjacent FTL area within the Pila-Mujong Management plan and is under part of the Kapit Stateland Forest and the Btg. Baleh and Rajang Stateland Forest initiatives. (HCV 2).
- Based on forest type classifications, the Mixed Dipterocarp Forest (MDF) within the FMU is divided into lowland and upper Dipterocarp forests. Both forest types are accorded as medium priority for conservation by National Conservation Strategy (NCS) List of Priority Habitat. No distinct Heath Forest (Kerangas Forest) was detected in the FMU but rather a mixture of Heath and MDF forest were detected on the surrounding ridges of steep hills (HCV 3).
- The FMU is located within Kapit Water Catchment and the legally gazette Baleh Water Catchment. Terrain Classes III and IV are present within the FMU (HCV 4.1).
- The FMU has identified riparian areas and Terrain Class IV in the FMU (HCV 4.2).
- No history of forest fire was found within the FMU. Adjacent forest containing other HCVs is considered potentially present even though no records or data of HCVs were found during the assessment. HCVs information on surrounding areas may be available if adjacent FTL areas are conducting their HCVF assessment in the future. The FMU is only surrounded by FTL areas; there is some human settlement either inside or located within and 1-5 km adjacent to the licensed boundary (HCV 4.3).
- No evidence of forest use by communities was found within the FMU area. Being remotely located near the Pelagus Forest Reserve Border and surrounded by FTL areas, there is some human settlement either inside community used area (i.e. SA area) or located within 5 km adjacent around the FMU boundary (HCV 5).
- No evidence and record of critical forest use from any community was found within the FMU (HCV 6).
|HCV 1.1 – PROTECTED AREA|
|No.||Management Recommendation||Action Taken|
|1||Demarcation of the buffer zone for forest nature boundary||A 100 m buffer zone along the forest nature boundary was marked in General Harvesting Plan (GP) and approved by Forest Department Sarawak (FDS).|
|2||Monitoring of perimeter of buffer belt to have identification on any encroachment.||Monitoring on all logging roads including the existing and old logging roads.Speed limitation of logging trucks and vehicles on the using of logging road to minimize the accidents in the FMU.|
|HCV 1.2 – ENDANGERED, RARE AND THREATENED (ERT) SPECIES|
|No.||Management Recommendation||Action Taken|
|3||Maintenance of the protection on protected species under forestry Rules.||All Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) species listed in the Wildlife Protection Ordinance were not allowed to fell.|
|4||To carry out marking on the protected trees during reduced impact logging to prevent felling accidentally.||Tree for protection has been implemented in previous Coupe 6AR (planned as Coupes 24 & 25 in the recently approved GP).|
|5||Measures taken in assessing endangered, rare, and threatened species in new coupes before commencing harvesting and trees tagging of all trees to be harvested.||Training on ERT species was conducted by FDS at Mabong Camp (41 Km) in July, 2019.Follow-up training on ERT was conducted by our in-house Honorary Wildlife Ranger in September, 2019.|
|6||A training of workers in recognition of protected species will be further improve the identification of these species within the FMU.||One training session including Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) has been conducted by Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) from 8th July, 2019 to 14th July, 2019.Awareness on Endangered, Rare and Threatened (ERT) species was conducted by STIDC Trainer on March, 2020.|
|7||To educate the local communities in recognizing protecting sites and wildlife.||A briefing on the protected sites and wildlife was held in March, 2020 in the Mabong Base Camp (KM 41) by STIDC Trainer.Awareness training program on ERT was conducted to forest workers at Mabong Base Camp (KM 41).|
|8||Honorary Wildlife Rangers and surveyors were instructed to monitor the presence of wildlife population in order to assess the number of these species before the commencement of forest harvesting activities.||The baseline data was collected by WTK’s consulting on the status of mammal and avifauna species with recommendation for its management.The opportunity in monitoring the presence of wildlife population has also been conducted during the Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) exercise. The assessment was done in 2019.An internal wildlife survey through patrolling was conducted by Wildlife Rangers in January, 2020.A survey on the species distribution in the FMU by surveyors was conducted in July, 2019.Wildlife posters and Policy on “No Hunting” were made available in the FMU.|
|9||An annual assessment with data collected during monitoring.||Based on the data collected in the PSP inventory has basic information on ERT of 2.6 tree/hectare recorded in 15 PSPs (planned as Coupes 1 – 10, 17, 18 & 74 – 76 in the proposed GP).Monitoring in previous Coupe 7 (planned as Coupe 1 in the proposed GP) is still in progressing.|
|10||The construction of guard house and gate in order to control on the hunting activities.||A security gate and guards house has been constructed in the main entrance of FMU in 2019 with records of ingress and egress of workers and local communities (if any).Based on recording book, there were some local communities entered into our FMU for hunting activity.|
|11||A Wildlife Ranger in patrolling and detecting illegal activities with reporting to Forest Department Sarawak (if any).||Two (2) Wildlife Rangers were appointed for Pila – Mujong FMU in 24th – 27th September, 2019. More Wildlife Rangers will be trained in 2020.|
|12||Camera trapping system to be installed for determination of ERT species to-date.||A total of 3 camera traps has been installed in December, 2019 covers both active and post logging area, i.e. the new Coupes 1, 6, 12,13, 21 & 25 in the recently approved GP.Based on recently monitoring record, there were a total of 19 species has been captured through camera traps and hand held camera both in the post-harvesting Coupe 4AR and active Coupe 6AR, 2019.|
|13||To ascertain endemic species, more studies need to be conducted for more details information||The assessment of flora species was also conducted during the pre-harvesting inventory work. Assessment of fauna species was conducted through hand held camera and camera trapping system in Coupe 4AR.Based on the HCVF Assessment done by consultant, the HCV is considered as present.Recommended that:A training session on the identification of ERT species to be maintained.A continuous monitoring the presence of wildlife especially on endemic species.|
|HCV 1.4 – CRITICAL TEMPORAL USE|
|No.||Management Recommendation||Action Taken|
|14||Pila – Mujong FMU with saltlicks in Coupe 4 and 19 of new GP.||Three (3) saltlicks have been identified by the survey crews in Coupe as new Coupes 1, 6, 12, 13, 21 & 25 and monitoring has been done.|
|15||A 100 m x 100 m of buffer zone reserve shall be marked around the saltlicks in order to prevent the visiting wildlife being interfered from normal.||Demarcation of 100 m x 100 m on ground for saltlicks sites in new Coupes 1, 6, 12, 13, 21 and 25 was done.|
|16||Saltlicks shall only mark on map and demarcate on ground but there should be no signboard so as to attract the hunters.||The buffer zone for saltlicks shall only be marked on map and demarcated on ground but not to put up signage for indicating the location of saltlicks sites (Put signage as HCV 1.4 for identification purpose).|
|17||A more accurate determination with continuous monitoring the population and diversity of wildlife is through the installation of more camera traps.||A more reliance result is through collaboration with the local communities to who may know the forest well.Three (3) camera traps have been set up in the three saltlicks areas and monitoring in Coupes 1, 6, 12, 13, 21 and 25.According to Honorary Wildlife Rangers, there was no poaching found in the previous Coupes 5AR and 6AR.The monitoring in new coupe is still in progressing as it is an active coupe.|
|HCV 3.0 – THREATENED ECOSYSTEM|
|No.||Management Recommendation||Action Taken|
|18||A map showing the Kerangas Forest Ecosystem.||The Kerangas Forest has been shown in the HCV map. The demarcation of Kerangas in Coupe 24 on January, 2020.|
|19||A demarcation on ground and marked on map||The demarcation on ground shall be done after Detailed Harvesting Plan (DP) approved by FDS.|
|20||Field workers will be informed for not to carry out harvesting activities and detail planning map must mark the status of protected area.||The protection status must clearly mark on the DP map.Field instruction with ground demarcation of the area is to avoid harvesting activities in the protected area.|
|HCV 4.0 – ECOSYSTEM SERVICE|
|No.||Management Recommendation||Action Taken|
|21||Establishment of inventory plots in order to assess the vegetation types to compare its unique features with similar forest type.||Certain portion of the FMU is inaccessible by road. Therefore, the survey crew is expected to carry out ground reconnaissance during the establishment of inventory plots.There is no encroachment captures during the cleaning of the existing M-1 and M-2 in July, 2019.|
|22||Mapping is completed and followed by demarcation on ground in active areas.||Initially there is one (1) water catchments were identified within Pila – Mujong, namely Mabong (41 Km) camp with nursery site and temporary skid house was lying inside the FMU boundary. .All water catchments have been mapped and demarcated for protection in September, 2019.Review of HCVF in 2019 shown that our FMU is located within Kapit Water Catchment and the legally gazette Baleh water catchment. HCV 4.1(3) is considered present.|
|23||The annual monitoring of boundary and signage||The boundary and signage monitoring on the one water catchment were conducted in June, 2018.Review of HCV in 2019 shows that none of the above water catchment is gazette as water catchment under Principle 9 of the MC&I (Natural Forest).|
|HCV 4.2 – EROSION CONTROL|
|4.2||Terrain Class IV area are mapped and included in DP as per GP (if any).Terrain Class IV shall also be mapped in the Comprehensive Harvesting Plan too.There will be no new skid trails inside the Terrain IV area. To reuse the existing roads and skid trials.The Terrain IV has already been marked and mapped in the approved GP. Therefore, DP shall follow GP for the annual coupe and also Comprehensive Harvesting Plan during the blocking.Terrain IV shall be marked and demarcated on ground with blue colour paint.The ground based bulldozers are not recommended for slope greater than 35° in slope and Low Impacts Logging (LIL) System such as modified excavators and yarder cable line system is recommended for harvesting, if any.|
|4.2||The monitoring is to ensure this Terrain IV area being not encroached.|
14. Occupational Safety and Health
- The importance of safety and health is clearly stated in the Occupational Safety and Health Policy dated 1st June 2016 as the basis of necessitates our commitment to comply with this requirement.
- A joint Safety and Health Committee was set up in the FMU with objectives as below:
- To reduce or minimize the risk of accidents and ensuring a safe working environment, through limitation on the speed of logging trucks and company vehicles using the logging road.
- To formulate procedures in line with all the applicable or required laws, ordinances, rules and regulations.
- To instil awareness of good mind set through continuous briefing and trainings.
- The management of FMU will allocate budget on training and education of her forest workers in order to improve their attitude, quality of work and performance while discharging their duties safely and efficiently.
15. Social Impact Assessment (SIA)
According to SIA studies, there were 118 longhouses or local communities. However, we will carry out the monitoring and enhancement measures for all our forest workers by adopting the Community Representative Committee (CRC) and Employer – Employee Committee (EEC) to take care of our local communities and workers.
16. Budget Allocation
In order to achieve the forest management certification, the management of Pila – Mujong FMU has planned and allocated a budget to estimate operational costs amounting RM77,083,780.00 for a period of 5 years from Year 2020 to Year 2024.